This is a monthly update on my glycemic management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) using Humalog and Tresiba insulin injections with a ketogenic whole-food diet and resistance and aerobic exercise.
My book, Master Type 1 Diabetes: The Simple, Low-Cost Method to Normalize Blood Sugars, is available in the U.S. on Amazon and internationally on your countries’ Amazon in both Kindle and Print versions. The book incorporates all the new strategies that I learned since my previous book that have allowed me to achieve truly normal blood sugars. It also describes why blood sugars can be so difficult to regulate with T1D without these strategies. The ‘Look Inside’ feature on Amazon will allow you to read the Table of Contents and the first two chapters of the book which gives a complete overview of the book contents. My other book, Conquer Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet, is also available on Amazon in print.
If you feel you might benefit from some individual attention and suggestions for achieving success with blood sugar control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes and/or losing excess body fat, I can assist you with a personal consultation via Skype. See the Coaching page for more info.
Glycemic Results for August 2021
In August 2021, my glycemic results were comparable to those of a non-diabetic individual, but slightly short of my ultimate goal of no blood glucose values less than 70 mg/dl. My mean blood glucose was 100 mg/dl and standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) was 17 mg/dl, equivalent to non-diabetic individuals (see below). The graph below shows all the blood glucose measurements and daily insulin dose totals for August 2021. My daily insulin dose totals were more stable this month compared to prior months.
My blood sugar goals are shown in Table 2.3 below. I set my goal standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) to ≤ 18 mg/dl (1.0 mmol/l), although normal is ≤ 25.2 mg/dl (1.4 mmol/l).
The table below summarizes my glycemic results for August 2021 and the previous 11 months. In the table, MBG = mean blood glucose, SDBG = standard deviation of blood glucose, BG COV = blood glucose coefficient of variation which equals SDBG ÷ MBG, MTDID = mean total daily insulin dose, MDTD = mean daily Tresiba dose, MDHD = mean daily Humalog dose, and the remaining columns include an estimated HbA1c (%) based on the mean blood glucose, the percentage of blood glucose values < 70 mg/dl, between 70 and 130 mg/dl, and > 130 mg/dl, and body weight (kg). My goal is to have 100% of my blood glucose values in the range 70−130 mg/dl, but did not quite meet that goal this month. However, fortunately I did not have any hypoglycemic episodes nor did I need to take any glucose tablets or Smarties™ this month.
The table below tracks my total daily meal macronutrients.
During August 2021, I decreased my total daily caloric intake down to ≈ 1,975 kcal/day in an effort to reduce my body weight to 67 kg, the next lower weightclass in master’s olympic weightlifting, for the third time. Unfortunately, I started thinking about food and wanting to eat more, so I went back to 2,025 kcal/day. I will try again this month and see how it goes. My Humalog doses were a bit lower this month which is always a good thing. I continued with 4 meals/day to both even out all four bolus insulin doses and possibly to help preserve lean muscle mass. Below is a photo of myself from April 2021.
In the table above, the rightmost column shows the ketogenic ratio (KR). In 1980, Withrow published the equation for the KR as follows: KR = (0.9 F + 0.46 P) ÷ (C + 0.58 P + 0.1 F), where F is grams of dietary fat, P is grams of dietary protein, and C is grams of dietary carbohydrate. From the equation, we can see that carbohydrate is 100% antiketogenic, fat is 90% ketogenic and 10% antiketogenic, and protein is 46% ketogenic and 58% antiketogenic. Therefore, the major determinants of a diet’s ability to produce ketosis are its carbohydrate and fat content, whereas its protein content has only a minor effect on ketosis. The KR can range from 0 (glucose) to 9 (pure fat). Using Withrow’s equation, this study, here, found that a diet with a KR ≥ 1.7 likely results in nutritional ketosis in humans. Therefore, anyone can formulate a low-carbohydrate diet to be ketogenic or non-ketogenic according to their own preference. As you can see, the KR ratio of my diet has been declining as the dietary fat and protein intake has decreased while dietary carbohydrate remaining relatively constant. Remember, the KR is just an estimate of a diet’s potential to produce nutritional ketosis. I have remained in nutritional ketosis continuously since 2012 regardless of the KR of my diet including a time when my daily carbohydrate intake was ≈ 70 grams/day. Although the KR is useful, if you need to know whether or not you are in nutritional ketosis, you should measure breath, blood, or urine ketones.
Table 2.2 below shows the mean and 95th percentile of the interstitial glucose (IG) and standard deviation of the interstitial glucose (SDIG) of 564 non-diabetic subjects as measured by CGM from the five studies referenced below.
The references for these five studies are shown below.
As always, my goal for September 2021 is to eliminate all BG values < 70 mg/dl as part of making managing T1D as safe as possible. I will continue applying all of the strategies detailed in my book, Master Type 1 Diabetes: The Simple, Low-Cost Method to Normalize Blood Sugars, available in the U.S. on Amazon, to try and achieve this goal.
In summary, the purpose of this blog is to share my experience with a low-carb, ketogenic, diet and exercise to better manage my blood glucose as a person with T1D. A low-carb, ketogenic, diet also allows for lower daily insulin doses and normal body composition which I believe reduces the risk of developing insulin resistance and the host of chronic diseases associated with insulin resistance including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. I also take metformin 500 mg with each of 4 meals daily (2,000 mg/day) to suppress liver glucose production which tends to be chronically elevated in those with T1D. This occurs due to the lower concentration of insulin around the pancreatic alpha-cells increasing the concentration of glucagon reaching the liver as well as the lower concentration of insulin entering the liver both of which increase liver gluconeogenesis and glucose production relative to those without T1D. Metformin also improves glucose uptake by skeletal muscle. These strategies also work well for those with glucose intolerance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and double diabetes (T1D with insulin resistance). As explained in detail in my book, Master Type 1 Diabetes: The Simple, Low-Cost Method to Normalize Blood Sugars, injecting insulin in the subcutaneous fat is just not the same as when it is secreted by the beta-cells in the pancreas according to the prevailing blood glucose concentration. I have accepted the fact that there will always be more variation in blood glucose than I would like, but if I can continue to keep the mean and standard deviation of my blood glucose readings equivalent to that of a non-diabetic individual while avoiding hypoglycemia, I will be satisfied.
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Comments or general questions are welcomed.
Till next time….