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This is a monthly update on my glycemic management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using Humalog and Lantus insulin injections with resistance exercise and a ketogenic whole-food diet.
This month I want to review a study I recently discovered, but was actually published in 2009. Not sure how I missed it, but I think it is related to the search terms put into Google. Anyway, here goes.
The study was conducted on 434 nondiabetic male and female subjects, age 20−69 years old, at 10 academic hospitals throughout China in which their BG was measured by 3-day CGM and 4 finger-stick blood glucose (BG) measurements daily. Before applying the CGM to the study subjects, they were confirmed to be metabolically healthy (nondiabetic) using a medical history, physical exam, and extensive laboratory testing. The subjects were not taking any medications, had normal body weight, blood pressure, fasting BG and HbA1c, fasting insulin or C-peptide level, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). HOMA-IR is simply the fasting insulin level multiplied by the fasting BG. If either value are slightly elevated, then the product of the two will be elevated and indicative of insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes. The OGTT measures several BG values after consuming a 75-gram glucose solution. If any of the values exceed a predetermined level, this too is indicative of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, or diabetes. Subjects with any abnormal results were excluded from the study.
The total calorie intake from the three daily meals was 30 kcal/kg/day during CGM, with 50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, and 35% fats. Comparing the interstitial glucose (IG) values at times when the finger-stick BG readings were also obtained, the mean IG was 103 mg/dl and mean BG was 103 mg/dl. For the 434 healthy subjects, the mean 24-hour IG was 104 mg/dl and the mean standard deviation (SD, a measure of glucose variability) of IG was 14.2 mg/dl. The 95th percentile of mean 24-hour IG was 119 mg/dl (6.61 mmol/l). This means that 95% of the metabolically healthy subjects had a mean 24-hour IG as high as 119 mg/dl. The authors of this study considered any mean 24-hour IG ≤ 119 mg/dl to be normal. Interestingly, impaired fasting glucose is defined by the ADA as a fasting plasma glucose between 100−125 mg/dl (5.56−6.94 mmol/l). It should be noted that the World Health Organization (WHO) and numerous other diabetes organizations define the impaired fasting glucose cutoff at 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l).
Two years later, another paper was published on the same 434 subjects. This paper focused on the glucose variability as measured by standard deviation (SD) of interstitial glucose (IG). The median SD of IG was 13.5 (0.75 mmol/L). The 95th percentile of the SD of IG was 25.2 mg/dl (1.40 mmol/L). Again the authors of this study considered any SD of 24-hour IG ≤ 25.5 mg/dl to be normal.
I included data from three other studies that I have previously reviewed on this blog in Table 2. below.
Glycemic Results For June 2019
The table below shows my mean blood glucose (BG), standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), body weight, and mean insulin dose totals for June 2019. I did not feel well at a body weight of 67 kg. I felt a slight lack of energy and was thinking about food a lot. I was not hungry, but at the end of each meal, I felt like I wanted to eat more. Therefore, I decided to just eat an amount of food that would satisfy me and let my weight be whatever it turns out to be. If I have to go back to the 73 kg weight class to compete in olympic weightlifting, then so be it. Thus, my total daily insulin dose had to be increased a bit during June.
The table below shows the percentage of BG values in the indicated ranges of low, goal, and high values for June 2019.
I did experience a reduction in hypoglycemia, but an increase in hyperglycemia compared to the previous month. Overall, I was pleased with my results, particularly with the reduction in standard deviation of BG. The graphs below show all of the daily insulin dose totals and all of the BG readings for June 2019. HUM = Humalog in blue, LAN = Lantus in green, INS = total daily insulin dose in red.
In July, I will continue to seek normal mean blood glucose and normal glycemic variability results. I appear to be getting ever closer to achieving that goal. Table 3. below shows my goals from this point forward in light of the results of the two studies presented above.
Zhou, J., et al., (2009). Reference values for continuous glucose monitoring in Chinese subjects, Diabetes Care, 32: 1188–1193.
Zhou, J., et al., (2011). Establishment of normal reference ranges for glycemic variability in Chinese subjects using continuous glucose monitoring, Med Sci Monit, 17(1): CR9-13.