#51 April 2018 Update on My T1D Management

 

This is a monthly update on my glycemic management of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using Humalog and Lantus insulin injections with resistance exercise and a ketogenic whole-food diet as described in my book, The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes also available on Amazon in print. My other book, Conquer Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet, is also available on Amazon in print.

Although glycemic management in T1DM will always be challenging, the low carbohydrate ketogenic whole-food diet definitely improves it and just as importantly reduces insulin requirements and can reduce the frequency of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Many of the diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s, and many more) associated with T2DM and “double diabetes” as part of T1DM are due to insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The low carbohydrate ketogenic whole-food diet directly improves both insulin resistance and endogenous hyperinsulinemia in T2DM and exogenous insulin requirements in T1DM (i.e. reduced insulin doses).

April 2018 was the second full month of taking metformin at a dose of 2000 mg/day. I am tolerating it without any side effects. As you may know metformin is the first-line medication for T2DM, but can also be useful for those with T1DM. Metformin acts on the liver to reduce glucose production by suppressing both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. I think this may be useful for those with T1DM on a low carbohydrate diet because the reduction in dietary carbohydrate reduces insulin requirements which in turn stimulates glucagon secretion by the alpha cells in the pancreas which in turn increases glucose production by the liver. This increase in glucose production occurs primarily from increased gluconeogenesis, but also some increase in glycogenolysis is suggested in some studies. In addition, metformin stimulates muscle uptake of glucose independent of insulin. Hopefully over time, I will be able to determine if taking metformin either reduces my blood glucose (BG), insulin requirements, or both. I am estimating that I will need to take it for 6 months to be able to make a before and after comparison as far as the insulin dose comparison is concerned. I should mention that a meta-analysis of metformin use in those with T1DM found the following:

“RESULTS: In total, eight randomized controlled trials were included. Metformin was associated with a reduction in daily insulin dosage, body weight, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, and high-density lipoprotein level but an increase in risk of gastrointestinal AEs compared with placebo treatment in T1DM patients. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in HbA1c level, FPG level, or triglycerides level. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in the risk of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis.” (see reference below)

That said, there is a possibility that metformin could increase the incidence and severity of hypoglycemia while on a ketogenic diet, so caution should be exercised. A possible mechanism for this is the fact that gluconeogenesis plays a more important role in maintaining BG in those on a ketogenic diet than on a balanced macronutrient diet. If metformin reduces gluconeogenesis, then hypoglycemia could result if insulin doses are not appropriately reduced. 

For the past several months I have detailed my treatment plan for my presumed left shoulder rotator cuff injury. Although it seems to be slow to recover, it continues to improve. On March 9th, I strained my left vastus lateralis muscle doing a snatch. That appears to have resolved, but on April 23rd, I strained my right lower back muscle doing weighted pull-ups, no less, and had to take 2 days off resulting in a sharp increase in BG due to reduced insulin sensitivity and a subsequent increase in insulin requirements to compensate (see first graph below).

Glycemic Management Results for April 2018

My April glycemic results were somewhat improved compared to previous time periods although I did not reach my desired BG goal of >70% time spent with a BG value between 61 and 110 mg/dl. I had less hypoglycemia this month and none were symptomatic. My total daily insulin dose declined slightly during April until I took 2 days off from weightlifting as mentioned above and then I had to take increased insulin doses for the next 4 days or so. Below are the graphs of time spent exercising and the corresponding BG values to illustrate the timing of increased insulin use after a brief cessation of exercise.

Post 51 BG and exercise graph

Below are my mean BG values, mean insulin doses, and BG frequency distribution for April 2018 compared to previous time periods. The predicted HbA1c uses the formula: AUC mean BG plus 88.55 divided 33.298. This formula is the least squares fit using my own personal mean BG versus measured HbA1c over many years. My particular HbA1c values are higher than many other individuals with the same mean BG. This is referred to as being a “high glycator.”

Post 51 Means Table

As discussed previously, exogenous insulin cannot mimic normal insulin secretion, so persons with T1DM should not expect to have truly normal BG values at all times. They just need to be low enough to prevent long-term complications and not so low as to cause unpleasant hypoglycemic symptoms or less common, yet more dangerous, consequences including brain damage, seizure, injury, coma, or death. I have set my target BG range at 61-110 mg/dl because values in this range are not likely to lead to harm or complications of T1DM. Your target BG range should be determined with your physician because one size does not fit all. Normal BG is 96 ± 12 mg/dl (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) and coefficient of variation is 13% which is the weighted mean from two studies of continuous glucose monitoring in healthy subjects (see references at the end). The standard deviation and coefficient of variation are measures of BG variability which I believe are important in T1DM. Clinical outcomes in T1DM (i.e. microvascular and macrovascular complications) have only been documented to correlate with measures of mean BG, particularly HbA1c. This does not mean that BG variability is not important, but it just has not been documented to correlate with outcomes and complications of T1DM. Achieving a normal standard deviation or coefficient of variation in T1DM would be difficult, if not impossible, with current exogenous insulin therapy (injected or pumped). Monitoring the standard deviation and/or coefficient of variation and finding ways to improve them to the best of one’s ability is desirable in my opinion. Following a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet is one such method of reducing BG variability, mean BG, insulin doses, and hypoglycemia. A ketogenic diet may also provide an alternate/additional brain fuel in the form of ketones to protect the brain when BG does go low. The alternative energy that ketones supply to the brain may prevent or blunt the sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia which in turn reduces or eliminates the symptoms of and harm from hypoglycemia. This hypothesis needs to be tested before it can be stated as fact. Having mild asymptomatic hypoglycemia adapts the brain to lower BG and reduces the symptoms of mild hypoglycemia and potentially the harm from hypoglycemia due to lack of activation of the sympathetic nervous system by reducing sympathoadrenal-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmia (see references at the end).

Below are my BG readings along with the Humalog (rapid-acting insulin) doses in April 2018. I adjust the breakfast (blue circles), post-workout lunch (black circles), and dinner (purple circles) meal-time doses based on the pre-meal BG reading and take extra correction Humalog doses (red circles) for high BG readings as needed. I continued my previous pattern of high BG readings after weightlifting although they were less frequent and to a lesser extent as mentioned above. This is primarily controlled by the basal insulin (Lantus) dose taken at dinnertime but that dose is determined by the fasting BG reading and thus cannot necessarily be adjusted to optimize BG at all times of day. In those with T1DM the basal insulin dose may be enough to compensate for the increase in BG with intense exercise, but may additionally require a rapid-acting insulin dose to lower a high post-exercise BG.

Post 51 BG and Humalog Doses graph

The table below shows the BG variability results for current and previous time periods. The percentiles (10th, 25th, 75th, 90th) on the right show the spread of the BG readings about the median. The interquartile range, the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles, is a measure of BG variability. In the middle of the table are the %Time in three BG ranges: %Time BG < 61 mg/dl (hypo) and the mean BG during that time, then %Time BG 61-110 mg/dl (target) and the mean BG during that time, and %Time BG > 110 mg/dl (hyper) and the mean BG during that time. Both the %Time with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are probably overestimates because they do not account for the corrections with glucose tablets for hypoglycemia or rapid-acting insulin (Humalog) for hyperglycemia. Measuring my BG more frequently or using an accurate CGM would result in a more accurate estimate.

Post 51 Variability Table

The daily insulin dose totals and BG readings for April 2018 are shown in the graphs below. You can see a fairly steady total daily insulin dose during the month with a 4-5 days of increased insulin doses to address hyperglycemia.

Post 51 BG and Total Insulin Doses

The daily insulin dose totals for 2018 are shown in the graph below. You can see a steady reduction in insulin doses since the peak at the beginning of January 2018. The measures I have taken to reduce this variation in insulin dose has included keeping meals and exercise constant as possible and adding metformin to suppress liver glucose production. Specifically, I try to keep all meals constant in terms of portion size, macronutrient composition and timing of my meals. In addition, I try to keep exercise constant including frequency (daily), type (the type of weightlifting exercises, mainly compound movements), intensity (gradually increasing weight over time as tolerated), and volume (repetitions). That said, keeping exercise intensity constant from day to day is quite difficult.

Post 51 BG and Total Insulin Doses in 2018

The graph below illustrates the distribution of BG values in the ranges indicated at various times of day. This could be useful to point out problems (hypoglycemia and/or hyperglycemia) at different times of day.

Post 51 %BG in Ranges at Different Times

The graph below illustrates the percentage of time spent in three BG ranges for each day of the month of April. The numeric percentage is shown on top of the green bars for the % of time BG was between 61 and 110 mg/dl.

Daily %Time in Ranges graph

In April, I will continue olympic weightlifting every day with 3 exercises per day. I will also continue metformin 2000 mg daily (1000 mg every twelve hours).

My Thoughts About Management of Type 1 Diabetes With A Ketogenic Diet

My goal of glycemic management in T1DM with a ketogenic diet is to keep BG as close to normal i.e. 96 ± 12 mg/dl (mean ± SD) as is safely possible (i.e. avoiding hypoglycemia) to avoid diabetic complications, a reduction in lifespan, and unpleasant symptoms of as well as injury and death from hypoglycemia. For me, a well-formulated whole-food nutrient-dense ketogenic diet, daily exercise, frequent BG measurements, and lower insulin-analog doses (Humalog/Lantus) have improved my glycemic control, hypoglycemic reactions, and quality of life. My basic diet philosophy is to avoid processed foods especially those containing refined carbohydrates, sugar, and vegetable (seed) oils while enjoying whole foods (with just one ingredient) as close to their original state as possible. I think just knowing the guidelines in this paragraph would be a good start for those wanting to improve their diet. To treat diabetes, the additional step is to eliminate all foods with significant amounts of carbohydrate to keep the net carbohydrate total < 50 grams/day. Some may do better with < 30 grams/day, while others who exercise a lot may do well with < 100 grams/day.

My current version of ketogenic diet is as follows: 

What I Cook & Eat

  • Beef, grass-fed, including meat (85% lean), heart, liver, and kidney (liverwurst)
  • Fish, mainly wild Alaskan salmon
  • Lamb occasionally
  • Chicken & Turkey occasionally
  • Chicken Eggs
  • Non-starchy vegetables (about 5% carbohydrate content by weight) including Cabbage (Red, Green, Napa), Kale, Collard Greens, Home-made Sauerkraut from Red Cabbage, Bok-Choy, Broccoli, Cauliflower, and some others.
  • Fruit – Avocado, Olives, lemon juice on fish
  • Nuts & Seeds – Pepitas, Macadamia, Brazil, Pecan, Walnut, Pistachio, Cashew.
  • Note: I developed an intolerance to milk prior to my diagnosis of T1D. I did try heavy whipping cream after starting my KLCHF diet, but am also intolerant of it. I do tolerate butter, but wanted to decrease my fat intake, so eliminated all dairy including cheese and yogurt.

What I Drink

Water (filtered by reverse osmosis), Unsweetened Tea & Coffee

What I Don’t Eat

  • Grains – Wheat, Corn, Rice, Oats (there are many more) or anything made from them, which is too numerous to list here. Gluten is a protein present in a number of grains (all varieties of wheat including spelt, kamut, and triticale as well as barley and rye.) which can cause a number of medical problems for a significant portion of the population with gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. In my case, I avoid them due to their carbohydrate content.
  • Starchy and most root vegetables – potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams
  • Legumes – peas, beans, lentils, peanuts, soybeans
  • High sugar fruits – includes most fruits except berries, see above.
  • Sugar and the fifty other names used to disguise sugar.
  • Vegetable Oils – Canola, Corn, Soybean, Peanut, Sunflower, Safflower, Cottonseed, Grape seed, Margarine & Butter substitutes, Shortening.
  • All Processed Foods.
  • I avoid restaurants except when traveling, and then order fish or steak with plain steamed non-starchy vegetables (no gravy or sauces that typically contain sugar, cornstarch, or flour) or salad.
  • Refined, but healthy, fats – Although there is nothing bad about including butter, coconut & olive oil in a ketogenic diet, I have eliminated refined fats from my diet to improve my body composition.

What I Don’t Drink

  • Colas (both sweetened and artificially sweetened).
  • Fruit Juice except small amounts of lemon juice occasionally.
  • Alcohol (can cause hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia in persons with diabetes).
  • No artificial sweeteners: I don’t enjoy them.

My exercise regimen often results in post-exercise hyperglycemia which is a normal response to intense exercise. However due to having T1DM, my body is unable to correct this without taking exogenous rapid-acting insulin (Humalog). The exercise I choose negatively affects my glycemic control to some extent. I’m sure I could find an exercise that has less impact on glycemia, but I enjoy weightlifting and feel it has health-span and life-span extending benefits which may compensate for the temporary increase in BG during/after exercise. Hopefully my BG values and variability as well as the relatively lower insulin doses that result from my ketogenic diet, exercise, and hopefully metformin (yet to be determined) are close enough to optimal to avoid any reduction in lifespan, diabetic complications, and harm from hypoglycemia, but only time will tell.

References

Efficacy and safety of metformin for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis – here

A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults – here

Continuous Glucose Profiles in Healthy Subjects under Everyday Life Conditions and after Different Meals – here

Variation of Interstitial Glucose Measurements Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitors in Healthy, Nondiabetic Individuals – here

Severe Hypoglycemia–Induced Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias Are Mediated by Sympathoadrenal Activation – here

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3 comments

  1. Heather B

    Hi, Dr. Runyan ~

    It’s been a while since I last posted a comment on your blog, but I always appreciate the monthly updates, and I continue to refer regularly to your book.

    I’m wondering about the overall impact of gluconeogenesis for T1 diabetics on a ketogenic diet (assuming metformin is not being taken). In your experience, are the BG increases and resulting increases in insulin dose greater or less than what would typically be experienced on a non-ketogenic low-carb diet?

    I’ve recently embarked on a “new” keto diet. My diet has been low-carb for many years, but my forays into nutritional ketosis have been thwarted by side effects — “keto rash” and diarrhea, mainly, but also signs of increasing hyperglycaemia, despite my ketogenic diet. This time, I’m about 5 weeks in. I’m still experiencing the usual (for me) side effects, but my glycemic control has been fantastic, and my TDD is very low (prior to this latest experiment, I was experiencing a lot of BG variability, exacerbated perhaps by perimenopausal hormone fluctuations). If, however, my blood sugars start creeping up as they have in the past, I’m wondering — especially if the other side effects persist — if I should once again return to non-ketogenic low-carb eating. Hence my question above.

    Any thoughts you’d be able to share would be much appreciated. Thanks very much for your pioneering work in the field of T1D and nutritional ketosis!

    Heather
    Age 52, Dx 1987

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    • Keith Runyan, MD

      Heather, that’s a good question, but I don’t know the answer. There are no studies that I am aware of that could answer the question. In your case if you are having side effects from being in nutritional ketosis, then the degree of gluconeogenesis is a mute point. You should follow the diet that gives you good glycemic control AND that you can tolerate without side effects. Glycemic control in T1DM, in my opinion, cannot and does not need to be perfect to avoid long-term complications and should emphasize “minimizing” hypoglycemia for one’s own safety.

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      • Heather B

        Thanks, Dr. Runyan! I look forward to following your experiment with metformin. For now, since my glycemic control is still markedly better than it was on “regular” low-carb, I think I will persist with the keto side effects, which are annoying but not debilitating. Working on the hypothesis that I’ve got some degree of longstanding diabetes-related gut dysbiosis, I’d like to see if measures to improve my gut health (including the keto diet) will eventually have an effect on the rash. Oh, to have an app for all this! 😉

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